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Appraisal of Dairy Project

APPRAISAL OF DAIRY PROJECT- An Example

For dairy schemes with very large outlays, detailed reports will have to be prepared. The items of finance would include capital asset items such as purchase of milch animals, construction of sheds, purchase of equipments etc. The feeding cost during the initial period of one/two months is capitalised and given as term loan. Facilities such as cost of land development, fencing, digging of well, commissioning of diesel engine/pumpset, electricity connections, essential servants' quarters, godown, transport vehicle, milk processing facilities etc. can be considered for loan. Cost of land is not considered for loan. However, if land is purchased for setting up a dairy farm, its cost can be treated as party's margin upto 10% of the total cost of project.

The scheme should include information on land, livestock markets, availability of water, feeds, fodders, veterinary aid, breeding facilities, marketing aspects, training facilities, experience of the farmer and the type of assistance available from State Government, dairy society/union/federation.

The scheme should also include information on the number of and types of animals to be purchased, their breeds, production performance, cost and other relevant input and output costs with their description. Based on this, the total cost of the project, margin money to be provided by the beneficiary, requirement of bank loan, estimated annual expenditure, income, profit and loss statement, repayment period, etc. can be worked out and shown in the Project report.

Technical Feasibility - this would briefly include -

  1. Nearness of the selected area to veterinary, breeding and milk collection centre and the financing bank's branch.
  2. Availability of good quality animals in nearby livestock market.
  3. Availability of training facilities.
  4. Availability of good grazing ground/lands.
  5. Green/dry fodder, concentrate feed, medicines etc.
  6. Availability of veterinary aid/breeding centres and milk marketing facilities near the scheme area.

Economic Viability - this would briefly include -

  1. Unit Cost
  2. Input cost for feeds and fodders, veterinary aid, breeding of animals, insurance, labour and other overheads.
  3. Output costs i.e. sale price of milk, manure, gunny bags, male/female calves, other miscellaneous items etc.
  4. Income-expenditure statement and annual gross surplus.
  5. Cash flow analysis.
  6. Repayment schedule (i.e. repayment of principal loan amount and interest).

Other documents such as loan application forms, security aspects, margin money requirements etc. are also examined. A field visit to the scheme area is undertaken for conducting a techno-economic feasibility study for appraisal of the scheme.

Repayment Period of Loan

Repayment period depends upon the gross surplus in the scheme. The loans will be repaid in suitable monthly/quarterly installments usually within a period of about 5 years. In case of commercial schemes it may be extended upto 6-7 years depending on cash flow analysis.

Insurance

The animals may be insured annually or on long term master policy, where ever it is applicable. The present rate of insurance premium for scheme and non scheme animals are 2.25% and 4.0% respectively.

Package of Common Management Practices Recommended for Dairy

Farmers

Modern and well established scientific principles, practices and skills should be used to obtain maximum economic benefits from dairy farming. Some of the major norms and recommended practices are as follows :

Housing:

  1. Construct shed on dry, properly raised ground.
  2. Avoid water-logging, marshy and heavy rainfall areas.
  3. The walls of the sheds should be 1.5 to 2 meters high.
  4. The walls should be plastered to make them damp proof.
  5. The roof should be 3-4 metres high.
  6. The cattle shed should be well ventilated.
  7. The floor should be pucca/hard, even non-slippery impervious, well sloped (3 cm per metre) and properly drained to remain dry and clean.
  8. Provide 0.25 metre broad, pucca drain at the rear of the standing space.
  9. A standing space of 2 x 1.05 metre for each animal is needed.
  10. The manger space should be 1.05 metre with front height of 0.5 metre and depth of 0.25 metre.
  11. The corners in mangers, troughs, drains and walls should be rounded for easy cleaning.
  12. Provide 5-10 sq. metre loaf space for each animal.
  13. Provide proper shade and cool drinking water in summer.
  14. In winter keep animals indoor during night and rain.
  15. Provide individual bedding daily.
  16. Maintain sanitary condition around shed.
  17. Control external parasites (ticks, flies etc.) by spraying the pens, sheds with Malathion or Copper sulphate solution.
  18. Drain urine into collection pits and then to the field through irrigation channels.
  19. Dispose of dung and urine properly. A gobar gas plant will be an ideal way. Where gobar gas plant is not constructed, convert the dung alongwith bedding material and other farm wastes into compost.
  20. Give adequate space for the animals.

Selection of Animal :

  1. Immediately after release of the loan purchase the stock from a reliable breeder or from nearest livestock market.
  2. Select healthy, high yielding animals with the help of bank's technical officer, veterinary/animal husbandry officer of State government/ Zilla Parishad, etc.
  3. Purchase freshly calved animals in their second/third lactation.
  4. Before purchasing, ascertain actual milk yield by milking the animal three times consecutively.
  5. Identify the newly purchased animal by giving suitable identification mark (ear tagging or tattooing).
  6. Vaccinate the newly purchased animal against disease.
  7. Keep the newly purchased animal under observation for a period of about two weeks and then mix with the general herd.
  8. Purchase a minimum economical unit of two milch animals.
  9. Purchase the second animal/second batch after 5-6 months from the purchase of first animal.
  10. As buffaloes are seasonal calvers purchase them during July to February.
  11. As far as possible purchase the second animal when the first animal is in its late stage of lactation and is about to become dry, thereby maintaining continuity in milk production vis-a-vis income. This will ensure availability of adequate funds for maintaining the dry animals.
  12. Follow judicious culling and replacement of animals in a herd.
  13. Cull the old animals after 6-7 lactations.

Feeding of Milch Animals

  1. Feed the animals with best feeds and fodders.
  2. Give adequate green fodder in the ration.
  3. As far as possible, grow green fodder on your land wherever available.
  4. Cut the fodder at the right stage of their growth.
  5. Chaff roughage before feeding.
  6. Crush the grains and concentrates.
  7. The oil cakes should be flaky and crumbly.
  8. Moisten the concentrate mixture before feeding.
  9. Provide adequate vitamins and minerals. Provide salt licks besides addition of mineral mixture to the concentrate ration.
  10. Provide adequate and clean water.
  11. Give adequate exercise to the animals. Buffaloes should be taken for wallowing daily. In case this is not possible sprinkle sufficient water more particularly during summer months.
  12. To estimate the daily feed requirement remembers that the animals consume about 2.5 to 3.0 percent of their body weight on dry matter basis.

Milking of Animals

  1. Milk the animals two to three times a day.
  2. Milk at fixed times.
  3. Milk in one sitting within eight minutes.
  4. As far as possible, milking should be done by the same person regularly.
  5. Milk the animal in a clean place.
  6. Wash the udder and teat with antiseptic lotions/luke-warm water and dry before milking.
  7. Milker should be free from any contagious diseases and should wash his hands with antiseptic lotion before each milking.
  8. Milking should be done with full hands, quickly and completely followed by stripping.
  9. Sick cows/buffaloes should be milked at the end to prevent spread of infection.

V. Protection against Diseases

  1. Be on the alert for signs of illness such as reduced feed intake, fever, abnormal discharge or unusual behaviour.
  2. Consult the nearest veterinary aid centre for help if illness is suspected.
  3. Protect the animals against common diseases.
  4. In case of outbreak of contagious disease, immediately segregate the sick, in-contact and the healthy animals and take necessary disease control measures.
  5. Conduct periodic tests for Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Johne's disease, Mastitis etc.
  6. Deworm the animals regularly.
  7. Examine the faeces of adult animals to detect eggs of internal parasites and treat the animals with suitable drugs.
  8. Wash the animals from time to time to promote sanitation.

Breeding Care

  1. Observe the animal closely and keep specific record of its coming in heat, duration of heat, insemination, conception and calving.
  2. Breed the animals in time.
  3. The onset of oestrus will be within 60 to 80 days after calving.
  4. Timely breeding will help achieving conception within 2 to 3 months of calving.
  5. Breed the animals when it is in peak heat period (i.e. 12 to 24 hours of heat).
  6. Use high quality semen preferably frozen semen of proven sires/bulls.

Care during Pregnancy

Give special attention to pregnant cows two months before calving by providing adequate space, feed, water etc.

Marketing of Milk

  1. Marketing milk immediately after it is drawn keeping the time between production and marketing of the milk to the minimum.
  2. Use clean utensils and handle milk in hygienic way.
  3. Wash milk pails/cans/utensils thoroughly with detergent and finally rinse with chloride solution.
  4. Avoid too much agitation of milk during transit.
  5. Transport the milk during cool hours of the day.

Care of Calves

  1. Take care of new born calf.
  2. Treat/disinfect the navel cord with tincutre of iodine as soon as it is cut with a sharp knife.
  3. Feed colostrum to calf.
  4. Assist the calf to suckle if it is too weak to suckle on its own within 30 minutes of calving.
  5. In case it is desired to wean the calf immediately after birth, then feed the colostrum in bucket.
  6. Keep the calf separately from birth till two months of age in a dry clean and well ventilated place.
  7. Protect the calves against extreme weather conditions, particularly during the first two months.
  8. Group the calves according to their size.
  9. Vaccinate calves.
  10. Dehorn the calves around 4 to 5 days of age for easy management when they grow.
  11. Dispose of extra calves not to be reared/maintained for any specific purpose as early as possible, particularly the male calves.
  12. The female calves should be properly reared.

ANNEXURE I

Cattle and Buffalo Breeds Important Characteristics/Description
A. CATTLE (INDIGENOUS)

SNo

Name Breed

Habitat/Main State

Breeding Tract Districts

Assembling Centres

Areas of demand

Remarks

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1

Amrithmahal

Erstwhile Mysore State now part of Karnataka

Tumkur and Chitradurg

Erstwhile Mysore State

Karnataka and adjoining area

Draught breed

2

Dangi

Maharashtra and Gujarat

Ahmednagar, Khandesh, Raigad, Nasik, Thane, Surat

Weekly markets in Ahmednagar, Nasik, Thane and West Khandesh district

Rocky ghat areas with heavy rainfall

Draught breed

3

Denoi

Andhra Pradesh Karnataka and Maharashtra

Medak, Nizambad, Mahboobnagar, Adilabad Gulbarga, Bidar, Osmanabad, Nanded

Weekly cattle markets, Jatras and fairs in Bidar and adjoining districts

Bidar and adjoining districts

Draught purposse breed

4

Gir

Gir Hills and forest of South Kathiawar

Junagarh, Also maintained by NDRI, Bangalore

_

Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra

Dairy purpose breed

5

Hallikar

Karnataka

Tumkur, Hassan & Mysore

Dodbalapur, Chickballapur, Harikar, Devargudda, Chikkuvalli, Karuvalli, Chittavadgi (T.N.) North Arcot (T.N.) Hindupur, Somaghatta, Anantpur (A.P.)

Dharwar, North Kanara, Bellary (KT) Anantur & Chittur (A.P.), Coimbatore North Arcot, Salem (T.M.)

Draught breed

6

Hariana

Haryana and Delhi, Punjab, Rajasthan

Rohtak, Hissar, Gurgaon, Karnal, Patiala, Sangrur, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Alwar, Bharatpur Western districts

Cattle fairs at Jehazgarh, Mahim and Bhadurgarh (Rohtak dist.) Hansi & Bhiwani (Hissar dist.)

Throughout the country

Dual purpose breed

7

Kangayam

Tamil Nadu

Coimbatore

Avanashi, Tirppur, Kannauram, Madurai Athicombu

Southern Districts of Tamil Nadu

Draught breed

8

Kankrej

Gujarat

Ahmedabad, Banaskantha

Ahmedabad, Radhanpur

Rajasthan, Maharashtra

 

9

Khillari

Maharashtra

Solapur, Kolhapur, Satara

Southern Districts of Maharashtra and adjoining districts of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka

 

Draught breed

10

Krishna Valley

Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka

Watersheds of Krishna and adjoining areas of A.P. and KT

Ichalkaranji (Kolhapur), Chincahli (Gulbarga)

 

 

11

Malvi

Madhya Pradesh

Guna, Vidisha, Raisen Sehora, Ujjain, Indore, Dewas, Gwalior, Shivpuri, Mandsaur, Jhabus & Dhar

Agar (Shajapur) Singaj (Nimar) Sehore & Ashta (Sehore)

 

Draught purpose

 

 

Rajasthan

Jhalwar and Kotah

Karimnagar (A.P.)

 

 

12

Nagori or Nagauri

Rajasthan

Jodhpur & Nagaur

Nagaur Parbatsar (Nagpur), Balotra (Barmer), Puskar (Ajmer), Hissar, Hansi (Haryana State)

Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh

Draught purpose

13

Ongole

Andhra Pradesh

Ongole, Guntur, Narasaraopet, Bapatla and Nellore

Available in Ongole tract of Andhra Pradesh

-

Dual Purpose

14

Rathi

Rajasthan

Alwar, Bharatpur, Jaipur

Alwar, Rewari (Gurgaon), Pushkar (Ajmer)

-

-

-

Dairy breed

15

Sahiwal

Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, U.P., Bihar, M.P., W.B.

Sahiwal (erstwhile Montgomery)

Jullundar, Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Kapurthala, Ferozepur (Punjab), NDRI, Karnal, Hissar, Anhora Durg (M.P), Lucknow, Meerut, Bihar, W.B.

-

Dairy breed

16

Red Sindhi

Pakisatan All parts of India

-

-

-

Dairy breed

17

Siri

Sikkim, Bhutan

Darjeeling Hill Tract

Darjeeling (Brought by dealers)

-

Dual purpose

18

Tharparkar

Pakisatn (sind)

Umarkot, Naukot, Dhoro Naro Chor

Balotra (Jodhpur), Puskar (Ajmer), Gujarat State

-

Dairy breed

B) CATTLE (EXOTIC)

1

Brown Swiss

Switzerland

-

India, Pakisatan & other Asian countries

-

Dairy breed

2

Holstein Friesian

Holland

Province of North Holland and West Friesland

Throughout the country (crossbreds)

-

Dairy breed

3

Jersy

British Isles

Island of Jersey

Crossbreds available in all states/U.Ts

-

Dairy breed

B) BUFFALOES

1

Bhadawari

Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh

Bah Tehsil in Agra Adjoining areas of Gwalior

Local markets in Breeding areas (Agra, Kanpur, Etawah, Jalaun, Jhansi)

-

Dairy Breed

2

Jaffarabadi

Gujarat

Kathiawar and Honreli

Breeding areas of Saurashtra

-

Dairy breed

3

Mehsani

Gujarat

Mehsana, Banaskantha, Sabarkantha tract in Gujarat

Ahmedabad, Mehsana and other places of breeding

-

Dairy breed

4

Murrah

Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab

Rohtak, Hissar, Karnal, Jind, Gurgaon, Western parts of Uttar Pradesh Nabha and Patiala

Rohtak, Bahadurgarh, Delhi, Jahanzgarh, Mahim, Hissar, Bhiwani, Hansi, Rewari, Ferozpur, Jirka, Nangloi, Narela

-

Dairy Breed

5

Nagpuri

Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh

Wardha, Nagpur Yeotmal, Adilabad, and adjoining parts

Vidarbha area of Maharashtra and Adilabad district of A.P.

-

Dual purpose breed

6

Nili Ravi

Punjab

Ferozepur (Montogomery Pakisatan)

Ferozpur District of Punjab

-

Dairy breed

7

Surti

Gujarat

Kheda, Vadodara

(Charottar tract)

Through out Gujarat

-

Dairy breed

ANNEXURE II

Reproductive and Productive Parameters (Traits) in Indian Cattle and Buffaloes

Sr.No

Name of the breed

Age at first calving

(months)

Calving interval

(months)

Lactation yield

(kg.)

Lactation length

(days)

Dry period

(days)

Milk yield kg/day during lactat-

ion

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

i)

Cattle

 

 

 

 

 

 

a)

Indian breeds

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

Dangi

54

17

600

300

210

2.0

2

Deogir

48

15

1,500

300

150

5.0

3

Deoni

53

14

810

270

150

3.0

4

Gir

48

16

1,350

270

210

5.0

5

Gaolao

46

16

600

300

180

2.0

6

Hallikar

46

20

600

300

300

2.0

7

Hariana

58

13

1,200

240

150

5.0

8

Kangayam

44

16

600

240

240

2.5

9

Kankrej

48

17

1,800

360

150

5.0

10

Khilari

52

16

240

240

240

1.0

11

Ongole

40

19

630

210

360

3.0

12

Rathi

40

19

1,815

330

240

5.5

13

Red Sindhi

42

14

1,620

270

150

6.0

14

Sahiwal

40

14

1,620

270

150

6.0

15

Tharparkar

50

14

1,620

270

150

6.0

16

Umblachery

46

17

360

240

270

1.5

17

Non-descript

60

19

405

270

300

1.5

B) Crossbred Cattle (Bos indicus Fx Bostaurus M)

Sr.No

Name of the breed

Age at first calving

(months)

Calving interval

(months)

Lactation yield

(kg.)

Lactation length

(days)

Dry period

(days)

Milk yield kg/day during lactation

1

H x F

34

14

2,970

330

90

9.0

2

H x BS

29

15

2,805

330

120

8.5

3

H x J

33

13

2,850

300

90

9.5

4

G x J

25

13

2,640

330

60

8.0

5

G x F

25

13

2,160

270

120

8.0

6

RS x F

29

12

2,295

270

90

8.5

7

RS x RD

28

12

2,160

270

90

8.0

8

RS x J

29

12

1,500

300

90

5.0

9

R x J

32

12

2,700

300

60

9.0

10

T x F

33

13

2,550

300

90

8.5

11

S x F

33

14

2,400

300

120

8.0

C) Buffaloes

1

Bhadawari

50

15

1,080

270

180

4.0

2

Murrah

42

16

1,800

300

180

6.0

3

Nili-Ravi

54

16

1,950

300

180

6.5

4

Surti

44

16

1,765

330

150

5.5

5

Mehsani

50

14

1,620

270

150

6.0

6

Jaffarabadi

50

14

1,620

270

150

6.0

7

Pandharpuri

56

14

1,350

270

150

5.0

8

Marathwadi

50

14

1,015

270

150

3.5

9

Nagpuri

50

14

1,350

270

150

5.0

10

Dharwari

50

14

1,350

270

150

5.0

11

Non-descript

50

16

540

270

210

2.0

Key : H = Hariana S = Sahiwal RS = Red Sindhi
G = Gir T = Tharparkar L = Non-descript
R = Rathi F = Friesian BS = Brown Swiss
RD = Red dane J = Jersey

ANNEXURE III

Unit cost of cows and buffaloes Approved by NABARD in some of the major States in India

SNo

State

 

 

Cows

 

 

 

Buffaloes

 

 

 

 

Unit Cost (Rs.)

Breed

Yield

(litres/

day)

 

Unit cost (Rs.)

Breed

Yield (liters / day)

1

2

 

3

4

5

 

6

7

8

1

Andhra Pradesh

 

6,000

7500

9500

Crossbred

Crossbred

Crossbred

6

8

10

 

7,500

10000

-

Graded Murrah

Graded Murrah

6

8

-

2

Assam

 

10,000

Crossbred

7

 

8,500

Graded Murrah

7

3

Bihar

 

13,000

Crossbred

10

 

9,000

Graded Murrah

7-8

 

 

 

6,000

Indigenous

5-6

 

7,000

Local (improved)

5-6

4

Gujarat

i)

14,000

Jersey X

8-9

i)

13,500

Surti

5.5

 

 

ii)

16,000

H.F.X

9-10

ii)

13,000

Mehsani

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

iii)

14,000

Jaffarabadi

6

5

Karnataka

i)

7,300

Crossbred

6

i)

6,600

Graded Surti

5

 

 

ii)

9,700

Crossbred

8

ii)

7,800

Graded Murrah

6

 

 

iii)

10,900

Crossbred

9

iii)

9,000

Pandarpuri

7

 

 

iv)

12,100

Crossbred

10

iv)

11,000

Pure Mehsani

8

6

Madhya Pradesh

i)

9,500

Jersey X

 

i)

7,000

Graded Murrah

6

 

 

ii)

6,500

Gir/Tharparkr/Sahiwal

8

ii)

8,250

Graded Murrah

7

 

 

 

 

 

7

iii)

6,000

Nagpuri

5

7

Maharashtra

i)

11,200

Crossbred

6

i)

7,000

GMB/Mehsani

7

 

 

ii)

14,000

Crossbred

10

ii)

8,000

GMB/Mehsani

8

 

 

iii)

8,400

Tharparkar/Gir/Hariana

6-7

iii)

6,000

Surti/Jaffarbadi

6

 

 

 

to

 

 

iv)

7,000

Nagpuri/ Dharwari

7

 

 

 

9,500

 

 

v)

5,000

Pandharpuri

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

vi)

6,000

 

6

8

West Bengal

i)

9,500

Crossbred

6

 

-

-

-

 

 

ii)

12,000

Crossbred

8

 

-

-

-

9

Orissa

i)

6,000

Crossbred

6

 

6,300

Graded Murrah

6

 

 

ii)

7,000

-do-

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

iii)

8,000

-do-

8

 

 

 

 

10

Punjab/Haryana

i)

2,700

Indigenous

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

ii)

7,950

Crossbred(J)

9

i)

7,450

Murrah

7

 

 

 

8,900

-do-(HF)

10

ii)

6,500

Graded Murrah

6

11

Rajasthan

i)

10,400

-do-

8

 

11,200

Graded Murrah

7

 

 

ii)

11,700

-do-

9

 

9,000

Surti

6

 

 

iii)

13,000

-do-

10

 

 

 

 

12

Uttar Pradesh

 

10,000

Crossbred

10

 

11,000

Graded Murrah

8

13

Kerala

 

6,000

Crossbred

6

 

7,200

Graded Murrah

6- 6.5

 

 

 

8,000

Crossbred

8

 

 

 

 

14

Himachal

 

6,600

Crossbred

8

 

9,000

Graded Murrah

6

15

Tamil Nadu

 

8,250

Crossbred

6

 

9,800

Graded Murrah

6

Hand out relevant for Programmes on Financing Agriculture, RDPC etc prepared by C P Mohan, Deputy General Manager and Member of Faculty, Reserve Bank of India, College of Agricultural Banking, Pune. The handout is Developed based on the Model Schemes prepared by NABARD.